什么是胸外科

 什么是胸外科
发表于 2018-11-27

进行胸外科手术所需的条件

进行胸外科手术所需的条件包括诸如肺部肿瘤良性生长、肺部感染和肺腔积液、肺癌、食道狭窄和食管肿瘤、食道癌、贲门失弛缓症和其它吞咽问题、间皮瘤、胃食管反流、多汗症、胸壁肿瘤及其它类似情况。此外,胸外科医生同样具备为晚期肺癌患者实施高难度外科手术的资格,如进行肺移植。

胸外科医生的角色

胸外科,与心脏病学以及肺学领域密切相关,包括对胸部结构、器官和组织的若干类似外科实践及干预。例如,就许多胸外科手术而言,一名专攻心脏和动脉阻塞清除的心胸外科医生,在开具任何药物或进行治疗之前,通常需要咨询心脏病科医生或肺病科顾问医生。

. 心脏病科医生对患者的心脏状况以及病情进行检查和诊断,然后给患者开具适当的药物。肺病科医生具有类似职能,如为患者开具处方、进行治疗且有时进行微创手术。然而,如果患者病情严重且处方药物无效,则心脏病科医生或肺病科顾问医生将帮助患者转介胸外科医生。

现代胸外科

病变器官或组织的位置决定了在胸外科中将使用的技术和方法。随着现代技术的发展,外科医生能够进行安全性更高的微创手术,切口最小化,精度更高,患者疼痛感大大减少,瘢痕最小化且住院时间更短。然而,若干手术如冠状动脉旁路移植术(CABG)通常通过开心脏术进行,其间胸外科医生和外科团队暂停患者心脏,排出心脏血液并对病变区域进行手术。随着近年来技术的进步,已经引入机器人辅助手术,由专门的机器辅助胸外科医生实现更高难度和高精度的手术。通过此种方法,外科医生可以在不打开胸腔或不损坏周围组织的情况下即可对病变部位进行手术 。

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